Early detection and diagnosis is key to optimal outcomes. Rapid and complete treatment of urinary tract infections is very important. For urinary incontinence and bladder dysfunction: use of anticholinergic and α1-adrenergic blockers; intermittent catheterization or vesicostomy. Surgical management of hydroureteronephrosis and bladder augmentation should be considered.
Management of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease relies on the standard optimal options including dialysis and transplantation.