In instances of feeding difficulties requiring assistance, supportive measures such as gastric tube feeding may be considered.

Most patients presenting with fine and gross motor delays can benefit from occupational and physical therapy.

Speech and language therapy can be used to improve communication. Sign language therapy can be employed in the rare cases of severely affected, non-verbal individuals.

Children with behavioural abnormalities, including attention deficit and hyperactivity, may benefit from individual evaluation and institution of appropriate treatment modalities when necessary.

Given that many affected individuals present with intellectual disability, early and/or individualised educational intervention may be required.

Non-specific orthopaedic problems such as kyphosis and scoliosis have been observed in some of the affected individuals and may warrant orthopaedic evaluation.

The presence of dental anomalies such as crowding and delayed eruption/absence of permanent teeth should prompt referral for early dental evaluation.

Routine management should be considered for constipation.