In instances of feeding difficulties requiring assistance, gastric tube feeding may be considered.
Most patients with hypotonia and fine and gross motor delays can benefit from occupational and physical therapy.
Speech and language therapy can be used to improve communication. Sign language therapy can be employed in severely affected, non-verbal cases.
Children with behavioural anomalies, particularly attention deficit or hyperactivity or sleep disorders, may benefit from individual evaluation and institution of appropriate treatment modalities when necessary.
Given that many affected individuals present with intellectual disability early and/or individualised educational intervention may be required.
Hearing has been reported abnormal in a few individuals and formal evaluation may be required in case of suspected abnormality or in individuals presenting a speech delay.
Asthma and/or recurrent pulmonary infections, reported in fewer than 50% of the affected individuals, may warrant pulmonary investigations as well as recognition of precipitating factors including allergens or gastro-esophageal reflux.
Suspected poor vision or seizures necessitate formal ophthalmologic and neurologic investigations respectively.
Routine management is warranted for constipation.